Categories
Research & Summaries

develop a hypothesis about smiling at others and then develop a corresponding research design.

Overview: For this short paper, you will first develop a hypothesis about smiling at others and then develop a corresponding research design. Once you have established your hypothesis and research design, you will then collect data by smiling at 10 people. Please make sure to adhere to this requirement — DO NOT approach or interact with any of the people that you smile at, as this would constitute human subjects research and require COCE Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. Finally, you will write up your study and conclusions drawn from the research. Please see the following detailed instructions:
Begin by doing a quick literature search around smiling or some sort of smiling behavior. This paper requires at least one peer-reviewed article cited in the introduction.
Next, develop a hypothesis statement. Think about what you have read in your literature search and what you experience in the world around you. What might you want to know about smiling? Make sure to use the “If . . . then . . . ” format.
Then, develop your methodology—what exactly are you going to do to test your hypothesis? Rigorous science starts with and sticks to a plan, so you should think through various challenges and how you might address them if they arise. If you start collecting data and then determine your methodology needs to change, you should discard all data collected to date and begin fresh with the new methodology.
Once you have the hypothesis and methods, you can go in one of two directions. Typically an experiment is carried out over a period of months or even years and the paper is written at the end. However, this is a week-long assignment and you might want to sit down and write the introduction and methods while everything is fresh in your mind.
In whatever order you decide to do them, the remaining two tasks are:
Collect the data. Implement your methodology and see how it goes. Remember, if you are both the person smiling and the person recording the data, you should have some discreet way of recording the information as you go. You do not want people seeing you measuring them or that will change their behavior. You also do not want to count on remembering all the details at the end of the day. Be sure to record some basic observations about who the participant was, as well as what their response was. Again, as stated earlier, DO NOT approach or interact with any of the people that you smile at.
Write the report. Using the standard APA format (see Chapter 2 of the APA manual), write up the experiment. There is an exemplar available for you to review in the Assignment Guidelines and Rubric folder. This is meant to help you. However, you should understand that it is the work of a fellow student. That means that this should be used more for ideas than as an example of the absolute gold standard of classwork.
Be sure your submission includes the following critical elements:
 Introduction: Title pages and abstract (required to be 250 words or less). Provides a research explanation that is appropriate for use based on the evidence in social science research, within APA word limits
● Introduction: Peer-reviewed resources—Include at least one peer-reviewed article for support.
● Introduction: Hypothesis—End with your hypothesis.
● Method: Development/description—Describe what you did. This should be detailed enough that you could hand the paper to a stranger and they could
replicate your study exactly.
● Method: Data collection and analysis—Describe the data collection and analysis procedures in detail.
● Method: Participants—Describe your participants. Descriptions must be an estimation only (such as estimating age). DO NOT approach people asking for
any information.
● Discussion: Supports/rejects—Write up what you found. Include a table or chart illustrating all of the participants’ responses. State if the data supports
or rejects your hypothesis.
● Discussion: Larger conclusion—What larger conclusions could you draw from this data? Are the results generalizable? What are the next steps if
someone wanted to continue this research? (Note that this section is not present in the current exemplar but is still expected for this assignment.)
● Discussion: Limitations—What are the limitations of the study that your reader needs to be aware of?
● References: Another section you are hopefully comfortable with by now. Your references should be in APA style format.
Guidelines for Submission: Your paper must be submitted as Microsoft Word document with double spacing, 12-point Times New Roman font, one-inch margins, running head, title page, and at least three sources cited in APA format. This submission should be approximately 3–5 pages (not counting title or reference page).

Categories
Research & Summaries

Graham, S., & Morales-Chicas, J. (2015). The ethnic context and attitudes toward 9th grade math. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 4(1), 1-32

In this assignment, you will write summaries for 5 peer-reviewed articles.
Summaries should be approximately 8-10 sentences each and capture the following
information:  Purpose of the study and/or the main research questions addressed
 Participant information includes the number of participants as well as key
demographic information like age, gender, and race/ethnicity.  Procedures used to collect the data including how data was collected (i.e. survey,
interview, etc.)  Key study variables and how they were defined/measured
 Main study findings (what relationship was found between the key study variables?)
 Implications of the findings for your research question. Each entry in the annotated bibliography should start with a proper APA citation
followed by the summary. Summaries MUST BE IN YOUR OWN WORDS (NO DIRECT QUOTES) copyingand-pasting will be considered plagiarism. See the example below:
Graham, S., & Morales-Chicas, J. (2015). The ethnic context and attitudes toward 9th grade
math. International Journal of Educational Psychology, 4(1), 1-32.
https://doi.org/10.4471/ijep.2015.01 This study examined relationships between school ethnic context and math course taking
patterns and attitudes for middle school youth. Participants were a part of larger longitudinal
study and included 265 9th graders (55% female) from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds
including Latino (44%), White (27%), Asian (18%), and African American (13%). Students in
the study completed surveys that took approximately 45 minutes. Some of the primary variables
in this study were math level, math attitudes, and same ethnic representation in class. Math level
was measured used students self-reported 9th grade math level (i.e. Algebra, Geometry, etc.)
Math attitudes were measured using a series of questions geared toward understanding student’s
perceived competence, importance, and anxiety in math. Same ethnic representation in class was
measured with a multiple choice asking students to indicate their perception of the number of
same-ethnic peers in their class. Scores ranged from 1=“None or hardly any” to 7= “all or almost
all. Results showed increased perceived same ethnic representation in math class was associated
with increased perceived math competence and belonging, especially when the overall school
ethnic climate was negative. Findings from this study address my research question by providing
evidence of a positive relationship between same ethnic representation in math class and math
attitudes as well as introducing a potentially important covariate—school ethnic climate

Categories
Research & Summaries

Decision Regarding Implementation of Instructional Method (

At this point, you have completed research on an instructional method to implement in your classroom. For this assignment, you will discuss your findings and the accompanying implications. You will also include your decision to follow through with implementing the instructional method. You must cite evidence from your articles that support your decision. The closing paragraph is a reflection of what you have learned regarding researching new ideas or concepts to improve your instructional methods. THE INSTRUCTIONAL METHOD TO COMPLETE THE ASSIGNMENT ON IS COOPERATIVE LEARNING.
The following headings are required:
Brief Description of Instructional Method (minimum one paragraph)
Summary of the Articles that Support the Instructional Method (maximum of two paragraphs)
Summary of the Articles that do not Support the Instructional Method (maximum of two paragraphs)
Decision Regarding Implementation of Instructional Method (minimum of two paragraphs)
How This Assignment has Improved my Research Capabilities to Improve Student Achievement in my Classroom (minimum one paragraph)
You must check your TURITIN plagiarism level to ensure the level is BELOW 15%. Once you upload your assignment, check the plagiarism level. If it is above 15% you must revise the assignment and resubmit prior to the deadline. The instructor will not allow you to revise the assignment due to a high level of plagiarism after the due date of the assignment.